Oppression. Discrimination. Various isms. With our expanding online population and large access to information, the social justice dictionary has become an open bar. In thoughtful conversation, this helps to better understand modern society and promote activism. But, sometimes words are just blankly misused. Among these terms is a House Special: Cultural Appropriation. Cultural appropriation is the adoption of one or several elements from a culture that is not your own. The term usually has negative connotations. While many people see “cultural appropriators” as typically Caucasian, any culture can borrow or take from another. Although it is a very real problem, the term is often used as an accusation exclusionary of mixed race people and transracial* (see below) adoptees. But, what about cultural appropriation within a group that declares individual identity to stray from the mainstream? What will be put in question here is its meaning and role within alternative subculture.
What belongs to who?
When cultural appropriation is brought up, a recurring theme is the dread dilemma. Often associated with the Rastafarian movement, dreadlocks have gone beyond their origin. Dreadfalls or cyberlocks, such as the ones worn by Amelia Tan, are popular in several subcultures. However, there is a common misconception as to the birthplace of locks. They began entering the mainstream in the 70s, as reggae rose, but were originally found in multiple religions and spiritualities including Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism and Christianity. The hairstyle being quasi-universal, it belongs to no one group.
Another situation can be found with the mohawk. Despite the name, the template punk mohawk we know today was derived not from Mohican people, but the Pawnee. Additionally, mohawk styles are historically present within a myriad of societies. For instance, the Cossacks, an East Slavic people, shaved all but a large lock of hair called a chupryna**. Entering the mainstream, the mohawk was worn by American GIs, “The Filthy Thirteen”, under the guise of Jake McNiece of Choctaw descent. Even in the 1950s some teenage girls adopted the haircut. Tracing back to the Celtic Iron Age***, there are a variety of “hawks” derived from different cultures. It would thus be difficult to argue that all mohawks are appropriative. On the other hand, borrowing certain traditional elements for purely aesthetic reasons can be seriously damaging to the target, particularly for oppressed groups. (think hipsters in headdresses).
“There isn’t just one Native American culture. There are hundreds. And there are millions of Native people. And we’re being ignored. We’re being told that we don’t have rights over how we are represented in mainstream America. We are being told that we should ‘get over it’ – but the people who are saying this don’t even know what the issues are. When people know of us only as a ‘costume,’ or something you dress up as for Halloween or for a music video, then you stop thinking of us as people, and this is incredibly dangerous because everyday we fight for the basic human right to live our own lives without outsiders determining our fate or defining our identities.” – Metcalfe (Turtle Mountain Chippewa from North Dakota)
Like the mohawk, some cultural elements have become associated with alternative people. In fact, subcultures form through cultural borrowing. European Lolitas followed the Japanese, who themselves were inspired by the 18th century European Rococo movement and the Victorian era. Where music is concerned, several metal bands name African American R&B musicians as their primary inspiration. Exchange is a natural part of growth. Without it, alternative culture would have no flow.
Where is the line between appropriation and appreciation?
The real issue is when a specific cultural element incites discrimination against one ethnicity yet praise for another. A perfect example is the recent conflict between celebrities Kylie Jenner andAmandla Stenberg. Stenberg called out Jenner on Instagram for donning cornrows (a typically black hairdo) while failing to “use her position of power to help black Americans by directing attention towards her wigs instead of police brutality or racism”.
“The line between cultural appropriation and cultural exchange is always going to be blurred, but here’s the thing: appropriation occurs when a style leads to racist generalizations or stereotypes where it originated, but is deemed high fashion, cool, or funny when the privileged take it for themselves. Appropriation occurs when the appropriator is not aware of the deep significance of the culture they’re partaking in.” – Amandla Sternberg states in her video Don’t Cash Crop on My Cornrose.
Appropriation goes beyond the monochrome. An atheist would probably not wear a burka. Yet, many atheist Goths wear crosses. The latter will offend some, while others might dismiss it as a Gothic stereotype. What may not affect some might offend others.
Simply put, there is more to the subject than what you “can” and “cannot” wear. Personal background, surroundings and current events all come to play. When it comes to cultural appropriation, one must consider the individual. For within culture, is identity. You can take to sell a Self, or you can be inspired to build your own.
*Transracial designates adoptees that accept their own background, but are in a family of a different race. Read more here.
**Such as the one worn by Dmytro Vyshnevetsky.
***The Clonycavan man (392-201 B.C) is believed to have had the world’s first mohawk.